## Archive of posts with tag “canonical transformation”

• ### Mapping from Kepler problem to free particle on 3-sphere

There is a canonical transform of the Kepler problem which is the same as the problem of motion of a free particle on 3-sphere. The explicit formula of the transform as well as some links about this topic is written in the article. The explicit formula for $E<0$ is $\mathbf u:=\frac{p^2-p_0^2}{p^2+p_0^2}\hat{\mathbf n}+\frac{2p_0}{p^2+p_0^2}\mathbf p,$ where $\mathbf u$ is the position of the particle on 3-sphere (a 4-dimensional vector), $\mathbf p$ is the momentum of the original particle in Kepler problem, $\hat{\mathbf n}$ is a vector perpendicular to the 3-dimensional hyperplane where $\mathbf p$ lies, and $p_0:=\sqrt{-2mE}$.

• ### Use complex numbers as canonical variables

In this article, I try exploring an idea: using complex numbers to combine pairs of canonical variables into complex variables: $\mathbf c:=\alpha\mathbf q+\mathrm i\beta\mathbf p$. It turns out that we can write canonical equations $\frac{\mathrm d\mathbf c}{\mathrm dt}=-2\mathrm i\alpha\beta\frac{\partial\mathcal H}{\partial\mathbf c^*}$, Poisson brackets $\left\{f,g\right\}=-2\mathrm i\alpha\beta \left(\frac{\partial f}{\partial\mathbf c}\cdot \frac{\partial g}{\partial\mathbf c^*}- \frac{\partial f}{\partial\mathbf c^*}\cdot \frac{\partial g}{\partial\mathbf c}\right)$, and canonical transformations $\frac{\partial\mathbf c^*}{\partial\mathbf c’^*}= \frac{\partial\mathbf c’}{\partial\mathbf c}, \frac{\partial\mathbf c}{\partial\mathbf c’^*}= -\frac{\partial\mathbf c’}{\partial\mathbf c^*}$ in these complex numbers. Finally, I show two examples of using them in real problems: a free particle, and a harmonic oscillator.